HISTORY of ROME – Chronology

 
753 B.C.  - Foundation of Rome

Regal period

753-715 B.C.  – Romulus first King

715-673 B.C.  – Numa Pompilius

673-642B.C.  – Tullus Hostilius

642-617B.C  – Ancus Marcius

616-579B.C.  – Tarquinius Priscus

578-535B.C.  – Servius Tullius

534-510B.C . Tarquinius Superbus

 

Expansion into Italy

509B.C.  - Establishment of Republic

496B.C.  - Battle of Lake regillus (victory over Latins)

451-450B.C.  - Twelve Tables (law code)

396B.C.  - Capture of Etruscan town Veii

390B.C. –  Sack of Rome by Gauls

295B.C.  - Battle of Sentinum: Romans defeat Samnites and others

 

Defeat of Carthage and expansion into east and west Mediterranean

 

280-275B.C.  – War with Pyrrhus

264-241B.C.  – First Punic War:Rome becomes a naval power and acquires Sicily

218-201B.C.  – Second Punic (Hannibalic) War:definitive defeat of Carthage;Romans acquire Spain

214-205B.C.  – First Macedonian War

200-196B.C.  – Second Macedonian War: Philip V defeated at battle of Cynoscephalae

172-168/7B.C. Third Macedonian War: Perseus defeated at battle of Pidna

147/146B.C.  – Annexation of Macedonia and Greece

149/146B.C.  – Third Punic War: destruction of Carthage

133B.C.  - Rome receives province of Asia

133B.C.  - Destruction of Numantia (Spain)

 

Break-up of the Republic

133B.C.  - Tribunate of Tiberius Gracchus

123-122B.C.  - Tribunate of Gaius Gracchus

112-105B.C.  - War with Jugurtha (Africa)

114-101B.C. –  Invasions of Cimbri and Teutones – Marius reforms the army

91-87B.C.  – Social War (Italy)

88-63B.C.  – Wars with Mithridates (Asia Minor)

82-79B.C.  – Dictatorship of Sulla

73-71B.C.  – Spartacus’ slave revolt

67-62B.C.  – Pompey in East-Syria made province

63B.C. Cicero consul: conspiracy of Catilina

58-51B.C.  – Julius Caesar’s conquest of Gaul

53B.C. Battle of Carrhae: Crassus defeated by Parthians

49B.C. Julius Ceasar crosses Rubicon river

48B.C. Battle of Pharsalus: defeat of Pompey

46B.C. Death of Cato at Utica (North Africa)

49-44B.C.  – Julius Ceasar dictator

44B.C.  - Murder of Caesar on Ides of March (15th)

43B.C.  - Second Triumvirate formed by Antony, Octavian, Lepidus

42B.C.  - Battle of Philippi: Brutus and Cassius defeated and killed

31B.C.  - Battle of Actium. Octavian defeats Antony

 

The Empire

Julio-Claudians

27B.C.  - Octavian becomes Augustus, first emperor

14A.D. – Death of Augustus

14-37A.D.  – Tiberius Emperor

37-41A.D.  – Gaius “Caligula”

41-54A.D.  – Claudius

54-68A.D.  – Nero

 

Flavians and Antonines

68-69A.D.  – Galba

69A.D.  - Year of the four emperors: Galba, Otho, Vitellius, Vespasian

69-79A.D.  – Vespasian

79-81A.D.  – Titus

81-96A.D.  – Domitian

96-8A.D.  – Nerva

97-117A.D. Trajan

138-61A.D. Antoninus Pius

161-80A.D. Marcus Aurelius (with Lucius Verius 161-9)

177-92A.D  – Commodus

 

Severan Dynasty

193A.D.  –  Pertinax

193A.D.  –  Didius Julianus

193-211A.D. Septimius Severus

211-17A.D. Caracalla

217-18A.D. Macrinus

218-22A.D. Elagabalus

222-35A.D. Alexander Severus

 

Invasions, usurpations, and chaos; Illyrian soldiers-emperors re-establish unity

 

235-8A.D.  – Maximinus Thrax

238A.D.  –  Gordian I and II

238A.D.  –  Balbinus and Pupienus

238-44A.D. Gordian III

244-9A.D.  – Philip the Arab

249-51A.D. Decius

251-3A.D.  – Trebonianus Gallus

253A.D.  –  Aemilianus

253-60A.D. Valerian (with son Gallienus)

253-68A.D. Gallienus

268-70A.D. Claudius Gothicus

270-5A.D.  – Aureliano

275-6A.D.  – Tacitus

276-82A.D. Probus

282-3A.D.  – Carus

283-4A.D.  – Carinus and Numerian

 

Diocletian and First Tetrarchy (284-305)

WEST  – EAST

Maximian Augustus (285-305)  – Diocletian Augustus (284-305)

Constantius I Caesar (293-305) – Galerius Caesar(293-305)

Second Tetrarchy (305-6)

Constantius I Augustus (305-6)  – Galerius Augustus (293-305)

Severus Caesar (305-6)  –  Maximin Daia Caesar (305-8/10)

 

Disintegration of Tetrarchy (306-13)

 

Severus Augustus (306-7)  – Usurpation of Maxentius in Italy (306-12)  –

Constantine I Caesar

Subsequently Augustus (308-37)

 

Usurpation of Domitius

Alexander In Africa (308-9/11)

 

Joint rule of Constantine I

 and Licinius (313-24)

 

Constantine I (306-7)  – Constantine I sole ruler (324-37) Licinius (308-24)

 

Constantine II (337-40) Constans (337-40)  – Constantius II (337-61)

Constans (340-50)

 

Usurpation of Magnentius (350-3)

 

Julian Caesar (355-61) Constatius II sole ruler (353-61)  – Gallus Caesar (351-4)

  – Julian (361-3)

  – Jovian (363-4)

Valentinian I (364-75)  –  Valens (364-78)

Gratian (375-83) and

Valentinian II (375-92)  – Theodosius I (379-95)

 

Usurpation of Magnus Maximus (383-8)

 

Valentinian II, ruler of West (388-92)

 

Usurpation of Eugenius (392-4)

 

Theodosius sole ruler (394-5)

 

Honorius (395-423)  – Arcadius (395-408)

(Stilicho regent 395-408)  – Theodosius II (408-50)

Constantius III (421)

Usurper John (423-5)

Valentinian III (425-55)  – Marcian (450-7)

Petronius Maximus (March-May 455)

Avitus (455-6)

Majorian (457-61)  – Leo I (457-74)

Libius Severus (461-5)

Anthemius (467-72)

Olybrius (April-November 472)

Glycerius (473)

Julius Nepos (473-5) Zeno(the Isaurian) (474-91)

Romulus Augustulus (475-6)